There are three kinds of dashes used in University publications. Most word-processing and page-layout programs can produce all three — hyphen, en dash and em dash.
Hyphen ( – ). Used to separate the elements of a hyphenated compound (for example, on-screen or English-speaking students) or to break words at the end of lines of copy.
En dash ( – ). Used to indicate duration or continuing or inclusive numbers (for example, 2009–10, children age 1–5). The en dash is also used to separate the elements of a hyphenated compound in which at least one of the elements is composed of two or more words (for example, post–World War II years) or both elements are hyphenated compounds (a quasi–public–quasi–judicial body). When you cannot create an en dash, a hyphen will do.
Em dash ( — ). Used to introduce an explanatory or emphatic element; to indicate a sudden break in thought or speech; to create a break in continuity greater than that suggested by the comma; and to set off multiple nouns when the nouns are the referents of a pronoun that is the subject of a summarizing clause.
EN 101 English Composition I — an introduction to college-level writing — is required of all UA freshmen.
She proofed the brochure copy — copy that could help recruit a generation of UA transfer students — for the sixth time.
He was able to surmount every obstacle but the last — a greased wall 50 feet in height.
Iceland, Malaysia, Peru — these are just some of the countries from which UA students come.
In applications and formats that don’t allow em dashes, use two hyphens ( — ). Do not overuse em dashes. Never use more than a single em dash or pair of em dashes in a sentence. Consider commas and parentheses as alternatives.
decision making (n.), decision-making (adj.)
See programs, academic.
See academic degrees.
The campanile on the Quadrangle was constructed in 1929 and named after UA President George H. Denny. When writing about the tower that contains the chimes, use singular verbs and do not use an article such as the if possible:
- Denny Chimes stands on the main Quad.
- A campus landmark, Denny Chimes was completed in 1929.
When writing about the chimes themselves, use the plural verb form and the when the structure of the sentence permits:
Every day, the Denny Chimes sound out the time.
Try to avoid sentences that mix the two references, such as the following:
- Tricky: In the background stands Denny Chimes, which have been ringing the hours since 1929.
- Better: In the background stands Denny Chimes; its bells have been ringing the hours since 1929.
disability accommodations and statements
Do not capitalize the names of academic disciplines or major or minor areas of study except those derived from proper nouns.
When describing a college or school of The University of Alabama, use the official names and second references and abbreviations given below.
- College of Arts and Sciences, Arts and Sciences, A&S
- Culverhouse College of Commerce and Business Administration, C&BA, the business school
- College of Communication and Information Sciences, C&IS
- College of Community Health Sciences, CCHS (If using this abbreviation, be sure your readers will not confuse the College with the Coordinating Council for Honor Societies, which also abbreviates its name to CCHS.)
- College of Continuing Studies, Continuing Studies
- College of Education
- College of Engineering
- Graduate School
- Honors College
- College of Human Environmental Sciences, HES
- School of Law, law school
- Capstone College of Nursing, CCN
- School of Social Work
Doctoral is an adjective.
He entered the doctoral program in 1993.
Doctorate is the degree received.
She earned her doctorate in 1985.
The University of Alabama’s domain name is ua.edu.
double major (n.), double-major (adj.)